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  2. Books by Philip H. Highfill (Author of Garrick to Gyngell, Vol. 6)
  3. [Read Book] A Biographical Dictionary of Actors Volume 10 M'Intosh to Nash: Actresses Musicians

The gallery now has a dedicated schools' entrance and reception beneath its entrance steps on Millbank and a new archive gallery for the presentation of temporary displays; the front entrance is accessible by steps. This membership is open to the public on payment of an annual subscription; as well as administration offices the building complex houses the Prints and Drawings Rooms, as well as the Library and Archive in the Hyman Kreitman Reading Rooms.

The restaurant features a mural by Rex Whistler.

Tate Britain and Tate Modern are now connected by a high speed boat along the River Thames, which runs from Millbank Millennium Pier outside Tate Britain ; the boat is decorated with spots, based on paintings of similar appearance by Damien Hirst. The lighting artwork incorporated in the pier's structure is by Angela Bulloch ; the main display spaces show the permanent collection of historic British art, as well as contemporary work.

It has rooms dedicated to works by one artist, such as: Tracey Emin , John Latham , Douglas Gordon , Sam Taylor-Wood , Tacita Dean , Marcus Gheeraerts II, though these, like the rest of the collection, are subject to rotation; the gallery organises career retrospectives of British artists and temporary major exhibitions of British Art.

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Every three years the gallery stages a Triennial exhibition in which a guest curator provides an overview of contemporary British Art; the Tate Triennial was called Days Like These. Art Now is a small changing show of a contemporary artist's work in a dedicated room.

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Tate Britain is the home of the annual and controversial Turner Prize exhibition, featuring four artists selected by a jury chaired by the director of Tate Britain. This is spread out over the year with the four nominees announced in May, the show of their work opened in October and the prize itself given in December; each stage of the prize generates media coverage, there have been a number of demonstrations against the prize, notably since an annual picket by Stuckist artists.

In recent years the exhibition and award ceremony have taken place at locations other than in Tate Britain: for example in Liverpool , Derry-Londonderry and Hull. Tate Britain has attempted to reach out to a different and younger audience with Late at Tate Britain on the first Friday of every month, with half-price admission to exhibitions, live music and performance art.

Other public involvement has included the display of visitors', as opposed to curators', interpretation of certain artworks. Regular free tours operate on the hour, at 1. A product of the tolerant early Restoration period, the play reflects an aristocratic and anti-Puritan ideology, was controversial for its sexual explicitness in its own time; the title itself contains a lewd pun with regard to the first syllable of "country". The implied condition the Rake, claimed to suffer from was, he said, contracted in France whilst "dealing with common women"; the only cure was to have a surgeon drastically reduce the extent of his manly stature and therefore he would be no threat to any man's wife.

The scandalous trick and the frank language have for much of the play's history kept it off the stage and out of print. Between and , The Country Wife was considered too outrageous to be performed at all and was replaced on the stage by David Garrick's cleaned-up and bland version The Country Girl , now a forgotten curiosity; the original play is again a stage favourite today, is acclaimed by academic critics, who praise its linguistic energy, sharp social satire , openness to different interpretations.

After the year Puritan stage ban was lifted at the Restoration of the monarchy in , the theatrical life of London recreated itself and abundantly. During the reign of Charles II , playwrights such as John Dryden , George Etherege , Aphra Behn , William Wycherley wrote comedies that triumphantly reassert aristocratic dominance and prestige after the years of middle class power during Oliver Cromwell's Commonwealth. Reflecting the atmosphere of the Court, these plays celebrate a lifestyle of sensual intrigue and conquest conquest that served to humiliate the husbands of the London middle classes and to avenge, in the sensual arena, the marginalisation and exile suffered by royalists under Cromwell.

Charles' personal interest in the stage nourished Restoration drama, his most favoured courtiers were poets and men of wit, such as John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester , Charles Sackville, Earl of Dorset , William Wycherley. Wycherley had no title or wealth, but had by recommended himself by two well-received comedies and had been admitted to the inner circle, sharing the conversation and sometimes the mistresses of Charles, who "was fond of him upon account of his wit". In , at age 35, he created a sensation with The Country Wife, greeted as the bawdiest and wittiest play yet seen on the English stage.

However, in contrast to the French, English audiences of the s had no enthusiasm for structurally simple comedies or for the neoclassical unities of time and action, but demanded fast pace, many complications, above all "variety". To achieve the much denser texture and more complex plotting that pleased in London, Wycherley would combine several source plays to produce bustling action and clashing moods, ranging from farce through paradox to satire.

A Restoration novelty of which Wycherley took advantage was the readiness of public opinion to accept women on stage, for the first time in British history. Audiences were fascinated to see real women reverse the cross-dressing of the Elizabethan boy actors and appear in tight-fitting male outfits in the popular breeches roles, to hear them match or outdo the rake heroes in repartee and double entendre.

Charles' choice of actresses as mistresses, notably Nell Gwyn , helped keep the interest fresh, Wycherley plays on this interest in The Country Wife by having Mr. Pinchwife disguise his wife in a boy's outfit, it has been suggested that he uses the allure of women on display to emphasise in an voyeuristic way Margery's provocative innocence, as well as the immodest knowingness of "town" wives like Lady Fidget.


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The Country Wife is more neatly constructed than most Restoration comedies, but is typical of its time and place in having three sources and three plots. The separate plots are interlinked but distinct, each projecting a different mood, they may be schematised as Horner's impotence trick, the married life of Pinchwife and Margery, the courtship of Harcourt and Alithea.

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Books by Philip H. Highfill (Author of Garrick to Gyngell, Vol. 6)

Horner's impotence trick provides the play's organising principle and the turning-points of the action; the trick, to pretend impotence to be allowed where no complete man may go, is based on the classic Roman comedy Eunuchus by Terence. The upper-class town rake Harry Horner begins a campaign for seducing as many respectable ladies as possible and thus cuckolding or "putting horns on" their husbands: Horner's name serves to alert the audience to what is going on, he spreads a false rumour of his own impotence, to convince married men that he can safely be allowed to socialise with their wives.

The rumour is meant to assist his mass seduction campaign by helping him identify women who are secretly eager for extramarital sex, because those women will react to a impotent man with tell-tale horror and disgust. This diagnostic trick, which invariably works is one of The Country Wife's many running jokes at the exp.

Courtesan A courtesan , in modern usage, is a euphemism meaning an escort, mistress or a prostitute , for whom the art of dignified etiquette is the means of attracting wealthy, powerful, or influential clients. The term meant a courtier , a person who attends the court of a monarch or other powerful person.

[Read Book] A Biographical Dictionary of Actors Volume 10 M'Intosh to Nash: Actresses Musicians

In feudal society, the court was the centre of government as well as the residence of the monarch, social and political life were completely mixed together. Prior to the Renaissance , courtesans served to convey information to visiting dignitaries, when servants could not be trusted. In Renaissance Europe, courtiers played an important role in upper-class society; as it was customary during this time for royal couples to lead separate lives—commonly marrying to preserve bloodlines and to secure political alliances—men and women would seek gratification and companionship from people living at court.

In fact, the verb'to court' meant "to be or reside at court", came to mean "to behave as a courtier" and then'courtship', or "to pay amorous attention to somebody". In Renaissance usage, the Italian word cortigiana, feminine of cortigiano came to refer to a person who attends the court, to a well-educated and independent woman a trained artist or artisan of dance and singing one associated with wealthy, powerful, or upper-class society, given luxuries and status in exchange for entertainment and companionship; the word was borrowed by English from Italian through the French form courtisane during the 16th century associated to the meaning of donna di palazzo.

A male figure comparable to the courtesan was the Italian cicisbeo , the French chevalier servant, the Spanish cortejo or estrecho; the courtesans of East Asia those of the Japanese empire, held a different social role than that of their European counterparts. Examples of Japanese courtesans included the oiran class, who were more focused on the aspect of entertainment in comparison with European courtesans.

One type of courtesan was known as the cortigiana onesta, or the honest courtesan, cast as an intellectual. Another was a lower class of courtesan. The former was the sort most romanticized and treated more-or-less equal to women of the nobility, it is with this type of courtesan.

The cortigiane oneste were well-educated and worldly, held simultaneous careers as performers or artists, they were chosen on the basis of their "breeding"—social and conversational skills, common-sense, companionship—as well as their physical attributes. It was their wit and personality that set them apart from regular women. Sex constituted only a facet of the courtesan's array of services. For example, they were well-dressed and ready to engage and participate in a variety of topics ranging from art to music to politics. In some cases, courtesans were from well-to-do backgrounds, were married—but to husbands lower on the social ladder than their clients.

In these cases, their relationships with those of high social status had the potential to improve their spouses' status—and so, more than not, the husband was aware of his wife's profession and dealings. Courtesans from non-wealthy backgrounds provided charming companionship for extended periods, no matter what their own feelings or commitments might have been at the time, sometimes had to be prepared to do so on short notice. They were subject to lower social status, religious disapproval, because of the immoral aspects of their profession and their reliance upon courtisanerie as a primary source of income.

In cases like this, a courtesan was dependent on her benefactor or benefactors financially, making her vulnerable. Courtesans serving in this capacity began their career as a prostitute, although many came to the profession by other means, it was not uncommon for a courtesan to enter into an arranged long-term liaison by contract with a wealthy benefactor.

These contracts were written up by and witnessed by lawyers, were binding. Most included some provision for the financial welfare of the courtesan beyond the end of the relationship in the form of an annuity. Many such women became so powerful and financially that they could be particular about the men they associated with.

Wealthy benefactors would go to great lengths to court a courtesan as a prize, the ultimate goal being a long-term contract as a mistress. Courtesans were passed from one benefactor to another, thereby resulting in them being viewed in society circles as lower than both their benefactor and those of wealth and power with whom they would socialize.

In instances of this sort, if the courtesan had satisfactorily served a benefactor, that benefactor would, when ending the affair, pass them on to another benefactor of wealth as a favor to the courtesan, or set them up in an arranged marriage to a semi-wealthy benefactor. They were more respected by their extramarital companions, both placing one another's family obligations ahead of. Dublin Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. It is on the east coast of Ireland, in the province of Leinster , at the mouth of the River Liffey , is bordered on the south by the Wicklow Mountains , it has an urban area population of 1,,, while the population of the Dublin Region , as of , was 1,,, the population of the Greater Dublin area was 1,, There is archaeological debate regarding where Dublin was established by the Gaels in or before the 7th century AD.

Expanded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin , the city became Ireland's principal settlement following the Norman invasion; the city expanded from the 17th century and was the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in This tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle.

Other localities in Ireland bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin and Difflin. It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. He called it Eblana polis.


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Dublin celebrated its'official' millennium in , meaning the Irish government recognised as the year in which the city was settled and that this first settlement would become the city of Dublin, it is now thought the Viking settlement of about was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements which became the modern Dublin ; the subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay.

The Dubhlinn was a pool on the lowest stretch of the Poddle, used to moor ships; this pool was fully infilled during the early 18th century, as the city grew. Dublin was established as a Viking settlement in the 10th century and, despite a number of attacks by the native Irish, it remained under Viking control until the Norman invasion of Ireland was launched from Wales in According to some historians, part of the city's early economic growth is attributed to a trade in slaves. Slavery in Ireland and Dublin reached its pinnacle in the 10th centuries.

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Prisoners from slave raids and kidnappings, which captured men and children, brought revenue to the Gaelic Irish Sea raiders, as well as to the Vikings who had initiated the practice; the victims came from Wales, England and beyond.